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Integral calculus
  Integrating irrational functions
 Integration of irrational functions of the form
 where, R is a rational function and,  p1, q1, p2, q2, . . . are integers, we can solve
using substitution  where the power n is the least common multiple of  q1, q2, . . . .
  Integration of irrational functions examples
 Example:  Evaluate
 Solution:

 Example:  Evaluate
 Solution:
 Integration of irrational functions of the form
where Pn(x) is an n-th degree polynomial.
Set
where Qn - 1(x) is an (n - 1) -th degree polynomial of undetermined coefficients and l is a constant.
Coefficients of the polynomial Q and the constant l we obtain by deriving the above identity.
 Example:  Evaluate
 Solution:

 Example:  Evaluate
 Solution:
 Integration of irrational functions of the form
Given integral can be solved using the substitution  x - a = 1 / t.
 Example:  Evaluate
 Solution:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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